Hepatitis Mnemonic

Hepatitis Mnemonic


  • Hepatitis is a systemic viral disease that affects the liver.
  • Acute hepatitis can be caused by Epstein-Barr virus and Cytomegalovirus
  • There are 6 types of Hepatitis (A,B,C,D,E,G)

Hepatitis has 4 Phases

  • Incubation Phase (time of exposure to development of signs and symptoms)
  • Prodromal Phase (time from initial onset of symptoms to onset of jaundice)
  • Icteric Phase (usually last 1-3 weeks) The patient will have enlarged tender liver, enlarged spleen, jaundice, tea color urine, light or grey stools
  • Recovery Phase (time it takes to recover) Depression and fatigue can last for weeks or months after the recovery phase

Hepatitis Mnemonic (A,B,C,D,E,G)
Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) (Anal-fecal-oral route)

  • Known as infectious hepatitis
  • Transmitted by the fecal-oral route
  • In feces, bile, and sera of infected people

Risk Factors: unsanitary, crowded living conditions & food/water contamination

Symptoms are flu like and less severe than hepatitis B

Incubation Phase 2-7 weeks

Prodromal symptoms: jaundice, RUQ pain, malaise, anorexia, nausea, low-grade fever

Diagnostic Tests: Serologic testing: Anti-HAV IgG (previous infection), IgM (acute infection)

Treatment: Supportive, avoid ETOH, acetaminophen, and hepatoxins

Prevention: hand washing, avoidance of undercooked food, safe water source

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) (Blood-Body fluids)

  • Transmitted by contact with infected blood, body fluids, and contaminated needles
  • Hepatitis B vaccine prevents the transmission and development of hepatitis

Risk factors: health care workers, transfusions, dialysis, acupuncture, tattooing, extended overseas travel, and residence in an institution

Incubation Phase: 2-6 months

Prodromal Period: ranges from no symptoms to very ill, rashes, arthritis, angioedema, serum sickness, glomerulonephritis, jaundice

Diagnostic Tests: Serologic testing: Surface antigen (HBsAg) early infection, Core antigen (HBsAg) chronic infection

Treatment: supportive but may be aggressive for fulminant hepatitis.

In pregnant women, transmission of hepatitis B to the fetus can occur if the mother is infected during the third trimester

Immunizations: HBV given at 0,1 & 6 months

Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) (Chronic, Circulation)

  • Spread through IV drug use and blood transfusions
  • Most cases of hepatitis C result in chronic hepatitis
  • Think C = Chronic
  • Leading cause of end-stage liver disease with cirrhosis and has a low response to treatment

Symptoms: Usually asymptomatic in acute infections

Diagnostic Tests: assessed by viral load and viral genotype, liver biopsy to stage disease activity

Treatment: supportive and expectant

Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) (Delta)

  • Depends on hepatitis B for replication (need to have hepatitis B to get hepatitis D
  • Can occur at the same time the patient is infected with hepatitis B
  • Transmitted parenterally and by sexual contact

Diagnostic Tests: Anti-HDV IgM and IgG enzyme linked immunosorbent assey (ELISA)

Treatment: No specific vaccine or treatment

Prevention: safe sexual practices, advoidence of IV drug use, vaccination with HBV vaccine

Hepatitis E Virus (HEV)

  • Fecal-oral transmission (same as Hepatitis A)
  • Occurs in developing countries
  • In the US, cases are related to recent travel

Incubation period: 2-9 weeks

Prodromal and Icteric phase usually lasts for 2 weeks

Diagnostic Tests: none available

Treatment: supportive, no vaccine available

Prevention: hand washing, avoidance of undercooked food, safe water source

Hepatitis G Virus (HGV)

  • A new category of hepatitis
  • Parentally and sexually transmitted


Key Notes

****Signs and symptoms of All Hepatitis are: Jaundice, episodes of Fever, Elevated AST & ALT****

****HAV & HEV are Fecal-Oral transmission. The vowels hit your bowels****

The Viruses that cause Hepatitis: Hepatitis Mneumonic

“Private Hospitals Favor Rich Clients”

Picornaviridae Family= Hepatitis A

Hepadnaviridae Family= Hepatitis B

Flavivirus= Hepatitis C

RNA incomplete virus= Hepatitis D

Calcivirus= Hepatitis E